ADL earliest research

A total of 28 companies (listed below) were part of the original research conducted by Arthur D. Little Inc. (ADL), at the time, the oldest management and technology consulting firm in the world, headquartered in Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A. The purpose of the research was to ascertain the policies and management practices which sustained innovation in corporations.

Of the 28 companies, 10 were from the U.S.A., 2 from Canada, 4 from Japan, and 12 from Europe. The research identified 25 Factors which have the most significant impact on innovativeness. The 25 Factors provide a framework for addressing innovation management issues.


Much has changed since the group of 28 companies were the subject of research into innovation management. Few remain under the same moniker. Mergers into other organizations account for a large percentage of the changes. Several companies have ceased operations. The L.A Committee has, of course, concluded its task. Sinclair Research is back to a one-person company; Sir Clive Sinclair. Chevron (Ortho Division) has morphed into a Super Fund.


Being identified as an innovative company is not a guarantee that the organization will survive as an independent company. Japanese companies seem to not change as much as in North America and Europe; for better or worse. Arthur D. Little, itself a highly innovative consulting firm and known for many inventions and bright people, declared bankruptcy in the late 1990’s.

By clicking on the corporate name you will be taken to that part of their web site which makes reference to the subject of innovation. White & Partners continues to follow 3M and Apple. 3M is our choice, from those companies which we have researched, which has the best set of policies and management practices designed to encourage innovation.

3M innovation

Advanced Semiconductor Materials, ASM Nederland

Apple Computer Inc., culture for innovation.

Asahi Chemical Industry Co. Ltd., Japan – now Asahi-Kasei Chemical

ASEA, Sweden – now part of the ABB Group (Brown Boveri)

Bergen Brunwig Drug, U.S.A. – now AmeriSourceBergen after merger in 2001

Canada Trust, Canada – acquired by Toronto-Dominion Bank for its marketing innovations.

CGE/Bromont, Canada now part of GE Avation, and at the time, the Bromont plant had a first-class reputation for its innovative approaches to management of human affairs.

Charles Schwab & Co., Inc., U.S.A.

Chevron (Ortho Division), U.S.A.

Club Mediterranee, France

Coditel, Belgium – name changed to Numericable

Debenhams, UK

Elf Aquitaine, France – merged into TotalFinaElf and into Total in 2003

Epson Corporation, Japan

Generale de Banque SA, Belgium – merged into Fortis Bank and eventually, post 2008, broken up and dispersed.

LA Olympic Organizing Committee, U.S.A.

MC!, U.S.A.?

Medtronic, Inc., U.S.A.

Merrill Lynch & Co. Inc., U.S.A.

Phillips, Nederland

Nixdorf (Wincor Nixdorf), Germany – acquired by Siemens and later spun off.

Perstorp AB, Sweden

Bosch GbmH, Germany

Schlage Lock (part of Ingersoll Rand), U.S.A. – joined Allegion in 2013

Sinclair Research, UK

Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd. Japan

Toray Industries Ltd. Japan